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Endovenous laser treatment:
     A catheter is inserted into the patient's vein. A small laser is threaded through the catheter and positioned at the top of the target vein, delivering short energy bursts that heat up the vein, sealing it shut. With the aid of an ultrasound scan, the doctor threads the laser all the way up the vein, gradually burning and sealing all of it. This procedure is done under local anesthetic. There may be some nerve injury, which is usually brief.

Transilluminated powered phleb-ectomy:
     An endoscopic transilluminator (special light) is threaded through an incision under the skin so that the doctor can see which veins need to be taken out. The target veins are cut and removed with a suction device through the incision. A general or local anesthetic may be used for this procedure. There may be some bleeding and/or bruising after the operation.

What problems can occur if left untreated?
   Most people with varicose veins do not develop complications. It is impossible to predict who will develop complications. The size of the varicose vein is not related to complications but the duration of the varicose vein is. Complications that may occur include:
•    Superficial thrombophlebitis – in this condition, the vari-cose vein is inflamed and tender. A clot is usually present in the vein.
•    Bleeding – even with minor trauma, the varicose vein may be associated with bleeding. Because the vein is under high pressure, the bleeding can be quite profuse.
•    Venous Eczema – the skin around the vein may become dry and very itchy.
•    Venous Pigmentation - this is brown staining of the skin around the ankle. It is due to the leakage of small amount of blood from the veins into the skin.